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Everything you know about Brown v. Board of Education is wrong

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Seventy years ago, on May 17, 1954, the United States Supreme Court issued a ruling declaring racially segregated public schools unconstitutional.

The court’s ruling resolved a lawsuit filed by black parents fighting segregation laws in Topeka, Kansas. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall argued the case on behalf of the plaintiffs as part of the NAACP Legal Defense Funds’ efforts to overturn the 60-year-old “separate but equal” doctrine. On May 17, 1954, SCOTUS issued a unanimous decision, endlessly desegregating America’s public schools. Today, this landmark court case is being hailed as one of an important victories of the Civil Rights Movement. There is just one problem with this narrative:

Nothing like this has ever happened.

As with most versions of black history, there are two versions of the story. In your seventh-grade social studies textbook, you read a story that illustrates the slow but regular racial progress in America. While this uplifting tale is based on a near-true story, there is one other, lesser-known version:

In honor of the seventieth anniversary of this pivotal case history, listed below are 10 unwhitewashed facts you probably didn’t know.

1. You’re saying it wrong.

The first (and maybe most vital fact) about . is that it should actually be called

The case as we know it began when parents in Summerton, South Carolina, filed a lawsuit against Clarendon County School Board President R.W. Elliott. In a college district that was greater than 70 percent black, segregated all-white schools had 32 school buses, while black children needed to walk as much as nine miles to achieve their neglected schools. On May 16, 1950, the NAACP filed a lawsuit on behalf of black students, the primary of whom, alphabetically, was Harry Briggs Jr. A 12 months later, Oliver Brown filed a case on behalf of his daughter, Linda Brown.

Typically, Supreme Court cases are listed in alphabetical order by plaintiff or, within the case of a consolidated case, chronologically. The Supreme Court ultimately consolidated Briggs, Brown, and three other segregation cases once they got here before the court. Although Briggs was first in alphabetical order, the consolidated lawsuit was named after the Kansas case.

Even if the choice was named in reference to the Kansas case, it still mustn’t be called “When.” Oliver Brown tried to enroll his daughter in a close-by all-white school fairly than one a mile away, he joined a class-action lawsuit that was already pending. He was allowed to hitch the lawsuit since the remaining Topeka plaintiffs were women and the NAACP felt it will be higher to have a person spearheading the case.

2. Why there is no name

He was first in alphabetical order again. It was chronologically first. But for some reason the case was called

“We consolidated them and made Brown the first so that the whole thing wouldn’t feel like it was purely Southern,” Supreme Court Justice Tom C. Clark told Richard Kluger within the book “Simple Justice.” Some historians say Governor of South Carolina James F. Byrnesa staunch supporter of segregation and former Supreme Court justice, he convinced justices to defy the court’s naming convention after promising voters that “white and coloured children won’t “mix” in schools

Earlier this 12 monthsThe Supreme Court dismissed the request to alter the name.

3. Segregation was not mandatory in Kansas.

One reason for changing the name of the case was that, unlike the opposite 4 states included within the lawsuit, most of Kansas’ schools were already integrated.

They sued the Topeka Board of Education because: Kansas law of 1877 gave districts in large cities the flexibility to segregate elementary schools. Like schools in small towns across the state, Topeka High School was already integrated. By contrast, integrated schools in South Carolina weren’t only illegal; they were constitutionally mandated.

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4. Integration was never the goal.

The Browns were also the one plaintiffs to expressly ask the court to permit their daughter to attend an all-white school. South Carolina plaintiffs demanded. Their entire case was based on the idea that white students were making the most of the theft of funds paid for by Summerton’s majority black residents. 107 parents who signed the act Petitionthis led to a case demanding “educational advantages and facilities equal in all respects to those afforded to whites.”

5. Thurgood Marshall was not an attorney

Attorneys Robert Carter and Jack Greenberg represented the Topeka case, while Marshall initially filed the lawsuit in South Carolina. Only after the justices consolidated the cases was Marshall chosen to deliver oral arguments before the Supreme Court.

6. created a brand new type of school.

Have you ever wondered why the demographics of most cities are a lot whiter than the demographics of school districts? For example, while the under 18 population within the US is 47.3% whitepublic schools are 43% white.

He did it.

Instead of integrating their schools, tens of millions of white families abandoned public schools private, all-white schools that also exist today. Today, Republican legislators in Georgia, Florida and other states are struggling to make use of public funds to finance these private, mostly white institutions.

7.

One of essentially the most famous by-products was The infamous “Doll Study” by Dr. Kenneth Clark.

The first psychological research project cited by the Supreme Court was commissioned specifically for the Briggs case to point out the psychological effects of segregation on black children. Scientists found that racial discrimination created feelings of inferiority and self-loathing in black children: “If society says that it is better to be white, not only whites but also Negroes come to believe it, Clarke testified. “The child may try to escape the trap of inferiority by denying the fact of his race.”

8. The Briggs family was driven out of town.

Shortly after filing the petition, Harry Briggs, Sr. was fired from his job at a neighborhood gas station, as was his wife, Eliza Briggs. The bank president then took over the family automotive. Even the family cow was trapped.

Not seriously.

Never mind.

9. The case was a matter of life and death.

Equality and justice weren’t the one causes of the Briggs case. The spark that lit the fuse occurred when an elementary school student drowned after falling from a raft on his option to school. For many students it was the one option to get to high school. Even once they arrived safely in school, they still had to gather wood to make a fireplace because there was no heating in black schools.

If only black people cared about education.

10. The case didn’t concern integrated schools.

Down integrate means “to form, coordinate, or combine into a functioning or unified whole” or “to end segregation and ensure equal membership in a society or organization.” Integration is defined as “the inclusion of equals in society or the organization of individuals from different groups.”

The Supreme Court’s decision did none of this stuff

Even though the court unanimously ruled that segregation was unconstitutional; white people largely ignored this decision. South Carolina had only just begun the desegregation process 1963. Mississippi, Virginia and other states began “mass resistance“, which opposed the Supreme Court’s decision for 15 years. Even today, most Black people children attend schools segregated by skin color. Nationally, white children are a minority in the public school system, but 77% attend predominantly white schools. Most non-white school districts receive them $23 billion less in financing than their mostly white counterparts. Black activists took advantage of the Supreme Court’s decision to make sure that the American education system stays separate and unequal.


This article was originally published on : thegrio.com
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National No Child Care Day: DC should not balance its budget at the expense of our children

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As a mother and community organizer, I look to my children and others to see the hopes and guarantees for his or her future. I’m also keenly aware of the importance of systems that promote the health and well-being of our children, which makes DC Budget cuts proposed by Mayor Muriel Bowser to the child welfare system, which is the cornerstone of every child’s well-being at an early stage of development, which is deeply disturbing to me and other parents and social activists.

The work of child care providers has been economically devalued since: the days when enslaved African women forcibly raised white children. Bowser’s budget cuts reinforce the slavery-era belief that black and brown child care employees do not deserve fair wages. These women are the invisible backbone of American communities and economies. They deserve a salary that can provide them with an honest standard of living. The DC Mayor and Council should put money into our children the same way they put money into millionaires. That’s why we’re working tirelessly to stop this from happening again.

May 13 is National Day Without Child Care (DWOCC), a day for child care providers to advocate for our government systems to create cheaper and accessible child care. As proud members of the Raising Child Care Fund, we are going to focus our efforts today on urging Mayor Bowser to say no to harmful cuts to the child care budget.

On April 3, Mayor Bowser proposed a budget for fiscal 12 months 2025 that eliminates it entirely Early Childhood Education Equalization Fund. The Pay Equality Fund (PEF) was established in 2021 under birth law for 3 years for all DC residents enacted in 2018. This program proposed everlasting funding to assist offer direct payments to child care professionals and employers to bring child care employees’ wages and advantages in step with their colleagues in the DC public school system.

In 2019, before the National Federation of Feedbackers DC Average Income was $15.36 for a babysitter in comparison with $33.10 for a preschool teacher and $44.16 per hour for an elementary school teacher. The implementation of the Pay Equity Fund in 2022 and 2023 has helped fill this gap paying $80 million to over 4,000 preschool teachers and their facilities to extend wages and salaries. DC relatively expensive standard of living implies that any potential fall in childcare wages to the minimum wage will force many employees to search out alternative employment.

Another PEF program, Health4CareChild care, provided teachers caring for young children with free or low-cost medical insurance. It is estimated that 16% of child care employees under the age of 65 are uninsured in comparison with 4.23% of teachers. The loss of this program will leave many employees uninsured or underinsured, which could also be the case further and disproportionately widen health disparities impact on Black communities in DC

DC has moreover proposed cutting $10 million from the child care subsidy program, which has helped lower child care costs for low-income families. Only current DC child care offers serve 71% of demand. Lower wages combined with subsidy cuts will result in an excellent greater lack of child care available to DC families.

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These cuts to the child care budget are a profound betrayal of the guarantees made by the DC mayor and council members to early childhood educators, especially provided that DC has increased education requirements and regulations for child care employees.

In December 2023, DC it required all its manpower in little children have child development credentials or an educational degree. Relatively, only five other states require similar minimum credentials. Increasing educational requirements while abandoning guarantees of increased pay for this predominantly black workforce is deeply damaging to the economic and mental well-being of our child care employees.

The DC government justified these budget cuts by stating that DC needed to search out funds to replenish its reserve funds. Bowser’s budget though attached $3.1 million for juvenile justice centers, $32 million for tourism and marketing subsidies and $551 million for downtown Chinatown revitalization.

Additionally, Tazra Mitchell, director of policy and strategy at the DC Fiscal Policy Institutehe wrote on Twitter “In 2021, the CFO’s office told me that DC had only spent about 75% of its cash flow reserve at any given time.”

The DC government decides to chop child care teaching programs that positively impact Black communities in favor of programs that impact corporate profits to be able to solve the money flow problem. This is an unjust act of democracy that we cannot allow to prevail.

As community members who consider in moving DC toward a caring economy, we’re dedicating our time, attention and resources to urging the DC Mayor and Council not to show their backs on child care employees.

On May 13, we plan to host caregivers and fogeys in the Wilson Building, which houses the mayor’s and council members’ offices. We will probably be hosting office hours and meetings with council members Phil Mendelson, Jeneese Lewis George, Kenyan McDuffee, Christina Henderson and others supporting the restoration of the pay equity fund. SPACE in Action may also host automotive brigades and display banners calling on the DC Council to maintain its promise to child care providers.

Proposed budget cuts to the child care system will threaten the physical and economic health of greater than 4,000 child care employees, mostly Black and Brown. This will worsen an already deepening child care crisis that has left so many families unable to search out inexpensive and accessible take care of their children. The tangible consequences of cutting child care will outweigh the imagined advantages gained from increasing DC’s rainy day fund.

At DWOCC, join us in urging the DC mayor and council members to guard our children’s future by protecting our early childhood educators in the present. No child’s educational development or caregivers’ livelihood should be limited to be able to balance the budget.


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This article was originally published on : thegrio.com
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The mother-daughter duo graduated from Rutgers School of Social Work together

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Is Rutgers a good school for social work?

Congratulations are to ensure that one mother-daughter duo.

Latonya Johnson, 43, and Laila Birchett, 21, graduated together from the School of Social Work at Rutgers University on Sunday. the institution made available.

“I took my first college course in 1999.” said Johnson, a divorced mother of six whose children range in age from 4 to 26. “From 1999 to the present, I have tried to go back in time six times, but to no avail. I couldn’t manage my time properly because I was a wife, mother and worked full-time.”

In addition to being a full-time mother before enrolling at Rutgers, Johnson worked full-time and took classes part-time. Birchett suggested that they attend school together, prompting her mother to cut back her working hours and enroll at university in September 2022.

“Her journey has been truly inspiring,” Birchett said of her mother. “It encouraged me to work harder in college.”

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The former Montclair State student knew she desired to pursue a field that may allow her to assist others, especially the homeless and the elderly. Johnson previously worked as an authorized alcohol and drug counselor.

At Rutgers, the mother-daughter duo attended different classes but had the identical teacher. They relied on one another for support, from computer technology to real-life experiences.

“There were times when I struggled to cope in school,” Birchett said. People Magazine reported. “But I always thought if my mom could do it, I could do it.”

Johnson and Birchett will enroll within the Rutgers Master of Social Work program this fall.

“My family — my kids, my mom and dad — they’re all proud because it’s two generations going to college together,” Johnson said, in keeping with Rutgers. “I never thought that in one million years I’d go to high school with my daughter and graduate from the identical university and the identical field. It’s a bit of surreal, but it surely has brought us closer together because we’ve got connected on a level I never thought I’d have the option to attach with my children.


This article was originally published on : thegrio.com
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A Virginia school board voted to restore Confederate names at two schools. I bet even Robert E. Lee is confused.

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Panama Jackson theGrio.com

Many years ago, I took my wife on her first trip to the Deep South, during which we made an 11-hour trip from Washington, D.C. to Huntsville, Alabama, to visit my parents. My wife, who is from Ghana and moved to New Jersey at age 11 before attending Howard University, had never been to the South before. Sure, she was in Miami, but I think we will all agree that Miami and anywhere in Alabama should not the identical.

Like many individuals from, well, anywhere else, she was very anxious in regards to the trip. Between all of the documentaries in regards to the Civil Rights Movement, history, racist white people, and the final notion that “the South is a place where racism thrives,” she was quite concerned about being kicked with the n-word, potentially kidnapped, and was an ancestor just crossing the imaginary border to the “South”. I assured her that wasn’t the case, but we soon had our first (humorous) encounter with racism.

No greater than two hours outside of DC, we stopped for a rest stop so my kids could use the restroom. We were just outside the border of Northern Virginia, which is not an independent state, but anyone who lives within the DC area knows the difference between “Virginia” and “Northern Virginia,” which is just like the difference between Atlanta and Georgia. A whole group of motorcyclists with Confederate flags on their shirts were parked at the facilities. I talked to one in all the bikers in regards to the weather and we each went our separate ways, but she felt justified. Racism was waiting for us as soon as we hit Virginia. I laughed it off, but I couldn’t disagree with it either.

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This memory is the very first thing I considered when I read the recent news in regards to the all-white school board in Shenandoah County, Virginia, voting againwrite down the names of the two schools originally named after racists and losers – Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee and Turner Ashby. The two schools in query, now Mountain View High School and Honey Run Elementary School, were renamed within the wake of George Floyd’s murder in 2020, when people made the historically correct decision to remove Confederate symbols and rename schools named after LOSERS CIVIL WAR.

I cannot emphasize enough how idiotic I think it is to honor the losers of the war that tore the country apart, but white people will likely be white people, you recognize? I bet even Stonewall Jackson and Nem will likely be like, “Really??? Wow… what a bunch of idiots. We lost. If we had won, we certainly wouldn’t have had any schools named after Union generals!” Robert E. Lee even against monuments after every little thing was said and done. Why? Because putting up monuments and stuff like that it could be too divisive. What are we even doing here?

Despite what number of community members didn’t want to change the names back to Stonewall Jackson High School and Ashby Lee Elementary, the conservative school board stated, “Yes, we definitely need to put these racists back on the field! LEGACY, NOT HATE!” Forget what message this sends to students of color in these schools; it is more vital to honor the LOSERS of the Civil War because clearly the defenders of slavery and racism were people of high moral standing and character, more so than the school board that modified names after the 2020 murder of George Floyd.

My God.

It’s bad enough that racists have gained momentum through the years with “critical race theory” bans and reversing diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives, but now districts are actively bringing racists into schools? Deliberately? White people never stop to amaze me with their boldness and audacity. Especially since everyone knows what happens from here; the proven fact that something like this happened on this case signifies that other school districts may follow suit, not for a very good reason, but to make some extent. The proven fact that I hate it here really doesn’t describe how I feel.

The aliens (and Robert E. Lee) have to be very confused.


Panama Jackson theGrio.com

This article was originally published on : thegrio.com
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