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Pharmacy closures impact minority communities most

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Walgreens Pharmacy


At the start of May, we informed that in 2024 this may very well be the yr the pharmacy closes, as Rite Aid, CVS and Walgreens were expected to shut greater than 1,500 pharmacies over the following two years. C

Additionally, they reported that local pharmacies are also closing, and when these two things mix, patients will find yourself in a pharmacy desert.

According to the Boston University newspaper, closing a pharmacy just isn’t like closing a ironmongery shop or department store existing unequal health outcomes are even worse. When Walgreens decided to shut 4 of its pharmacies situated primarily in Black and Brown neighborhoods in 2022, politicians like Sen. Ed Marley (D-Mass.), Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) and Republican Ayanna Pressley (D-Mass.) ) took notice of this and called on the corporate to exchange its stores, citing the creation of food apartheid zones and pharmacy deserts.

“These closures come as part of a broader legacy of historic racial and economic discrimination that has created significant pharmaceutical and food deserts and a lack of access to transportation in these neighborhoods,” Politicians Walgreens CEO Tim Wentworth noted within the letter.

The closure of major retail pharmacy chains means a disruption within the health care chain, experts say, because pharmacies often facilitate every part from vaccinations to over-the-counter drugs to baby formula.

Cole Brahim, an associate professor of health law, policy and management and coordinator of the Medicaid Policy Lab at Boston University, said capitalism is the reason for the shutdown.

“Often, an entire retail store – Walgreens, CVS, Rite Aid – closes its doors due to financial problems that are, in part, the result of increased competition. If a store or pharmacy does not generate enough revenue to cover costs, or if the store could perform better elsewhere, it closes. This is especially true for retail stores in low-income neighborhoods because customers have less money to spend and margins at these stores may be less favorable.”

Brahim continued: “Income shortages and workforce constraints are leading to a limited variety of pharmacies moving from lower-income neighborhoods to higher-income neighborhoods, which in turn further exacerbates already existing health inequalities. The effects of closing pharmacies in low-income neighborhoods are each immediate and long-lasting. The lack of a pharmacy – which often is the only pharmacy nearby – means an absence of access to key medications, which in turn can mean more patients with uncontrolled chronic diseases, an extended course of disease, and sometimes serious or life-threatening complications.

Residents of predominately black and Latino neighborhoods, in response to reports less access to pharmacies than people living in majority white neighborhoods. As Healthcare Brew reports, tightening the closure of independent pharmacies is a brand new rule from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that has caused lower returns for pharmacies than they received prior to now from government programs.

The National Pharmacists Association (NCPA), a bunch representing the interests of greater than 19,000 pharmacies across the country, raised the alarm on this issue in February and called on the Biden administration and Congress to take motion.

“Nearly one-third of independent pharmacy owners may close their stores this year under pressure from falling prescription drug reimbursements from large insurance plans and pharmacy benefit managers,” said NCPA CEO and pharmacist B. Douglas Hoey.

“This is an emergency. And if Congress fails to act again, within months, thousands of local pharmacies could close and millions of patients could be left without a pharmacy.”

“If one-third of all community pharmacies close and more than 90 percent stop accepting Medicare Part D, it will be a disaster for seniors, hardship for most remaining patients and a devastating blow to the entire health care system,” he said. Hi. “This requires immediate action by Congress and the administration.”

In 2023 A research conducted by scientists from the University of Houston documented the impact these closures had on underserved areas. The study’s lead writer, Dr. Omolola Adepoju, clinical associate professor and director of research on the Humana Institute for Integrated Health Sciences, told the University of Houston: “Pharmacies have at all times been the first access point to health look after families in medically underserved areas, but this can pass. In these areas, that are primarily minority communities facing significant socioeconomic challenges, this exacerbates existing health care disparities.”

Adepoju continued: “We must address this issue, taking into account not only the economic impact of closures, but also the wider health impacts of affected communities. Our research provides key insights that can inform policy decisions and improve equitable access to health care.”

Adebosola Karunwi, a third-year medical student on the University of Houston and co-author of the study, echoed Adepoju’s concerns and stated that access to medicines is a critical health care need.

“This extra distance could have serious consequences. A diabetic who needs to take a long walk or multiple bus trips to fill an insulin prescription may not do so and instead skip doses or blood tests. We are already seeing hospitals using services like UberHealth to deliver medications and get patients to appointments,” Karunwi said. “But more needs to be done. In this day and age, there is no reason why anyone should not have access to the health care they deserve.”


This article was originally published on : www.blackenterprise.com
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Health and Wellness

Why we all get sick more often after Covid-19

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Covid, study


According to an evaluation by Airfinity Ltd., not less than 13 diseases are on the rise within the post-pandemic era. While scientists don’t yet have an evidence, they consider the way in which Covid-19 modified baseline immunity plays a task.

As we reported, one popular one theory that emerged it’s immunological debt. Essentially, which means that people’s immune systems were isolated as a result of isolation, but when the world reopened, people were more at risk of disease, especially young individuals who couldn’t be exposed to disease in settings corresponding to public schools. As Cindy Yuan, an internal medicine physician at a clinic in Shanghai, said: “It’s as if the walls of the immune system have burst, allowing all kinds of viruses to easily enter,” Dr. Yuan said. She told the power that in a matter of months, her patient volume had doubled from pre-pandemic levels. “It works non-stop. From mycoplasma infections last fall to flu and Covid-19 within the winter, after which whooping cough and various varieties of bacterial infections.

Others, like Ben Cowling, head of epidemiology on the University of Hong Kong’s School of Public Health, usually are not convinced that the immune debt theory tells the entire story. Cowling believes that greater surveillance and more testing have also contributed to the rise in disease reporting and said: “Immune debt certainly happens, but I don’t think it’s resulting in huge epidemics after Cowling.”

Like Cowling, Christopher Murray, director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, believes there are more aspects at play than simply the debt immunity theory. “Why should it’s worse in places which have done a great job? This seems a bit strange. Part of that’s the concept that these countries are keeping frail, elderly people alive,” Murray added that when combined with the debt immunity theory, “it’s really quite a sophisticated set of things.”

In addition, pandemic-era misinformation about how vaccines work has contributed to declining vaccination rates amongst children, and poverty has played an as yet undetermined role within the spread of disease, experts say. According to the report, poverty levels have skyrocketed around the globe within the wake of the pandemic, adding to the rising rates of infectious diseases. According to Cowling, lower vaccination rates have contributed to a rise in diseases corresponding to measles, polio and whooping cough.

Measles, particularly, serves as a form of litmus test for the spread of other diseases, since 95% childhood vaccination coverage is required to eliminate its spread. Measles, which was functionally eliminated within the United States in 2000, has now been eliminated organized the return after vaccinations for preschool children immersed. According to Katherine Wallace, an epidemiologist on the University of Illinois, the resurgence of measles is an indication that other diseases can have an analogous surge.

Jeremy Farrar, chief scientist on the World Health Organization, identified that COVID-19 has created a “series of concentric circles,” evidenced partially by a decline in vaccination rates.

“We need to make the case for the science and vaccines and explain, clarify and explain the importance. We can’t just say some people are against science or vaccines and forget about them,” Farrar said. “We must listen, explain and try to reach everyone.”


This article was originally published on : www.blackenterprise.com
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Health and Wellness

How do we define beauty? Martine Rose asks about the SS25 Show

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Justin Shin/Getty Images

Known for making surprise appearances on the fashion week calendar, Martine Rose made her first appearance in Milan, presenting her SS25 collection during men’s week. However, this season, the born beauty raises a matter that many persons are searching for a solution to. How do we define beauty? And what makes yet another beautiful than one other? According to Martine, the answer lies in the “cracks and fissures of culture”: from the extraordinary to the invisible and unpredictable.

“The spring-summer 2025 collection is dedicated to manifestations of beauty born of anxiety, humor and sex,” we read in the program notes. ​​Across the collection of 34 styles, attention was drawn to maximalist nails decorated with puffy crystals and checks, floor-length black wigs and prosthetic noses. Designed to “give a confrontational appearance,” the long, unkempt hair and, after all, the false noses reminded us of the distinctiveness and exclusion of Black people in beauty.

How do we define beauty?  Martine Rose asks about the SS25 Show
MILAN, ITALY – JUNE 16: A model walks the runway of the Martine Rose fashion show during Milan Menswear Spring/Summer 2025 on June 16, 2024 in Milan, Italy. (Photo: Justin Shin/Getty Images)

WITH over 44,000 nose surgeries performed in the USA in 2022 (greater than twice as many as 20.7 thousand in Italy this 12 months), rhinoplasty is commonly modeled after a Eurocentric nose. “The very first thing you see on people is commonly their nose. “It’s often the first thing they change about themselves.” she says . Presenting show notes in the city described as a “traditional platform for mainstream beauty exploration”, the British designer decided to counter this with wide, taped noses (which go against the traditional “ski slope” nose standard), complemented by a “hard wig, soft life” hairstyle “.

Behind the messy, tangled hair was a hairstylist Gary Gill (who was also answerable for Fendi and Hérmes) and a colorist Tasha Spencer, tying up her disheveled braids and lifting her thin fringe into the air. From the nose to hair and nails, “body-modifying items challenge conventional notions of beauty, character and anonymity,” Rose wrote, questioning beauty standards and the way they exist in the first place. So between the partitions of the Porta Romana and the seats covered with recycled sheets, tense “untried and interesting evolutions of beauty” could emerge.

How do we define beauty?  Martine Rose asks about the SS25 Show
MILAN, ITALY – JUNE 16: A model walks the runway during the Martine Rose Ready to Wear Spring/Summer 2025 fashion show as a part of Milan Men’s Fashion Week on June 16, 2024 in Milan, Italy. (Photo by Victor VIRGILE/Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images)


This article was originally published on : www.essence.com
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Health and Wellness

Why do I poop in the morning? A gut expert explains

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No, you’ll be able to’t imagine it. People are literally more prone to poop in the morning, right after breakfast. Scientists have actually studied this.

But why in the morning? What if you happen to are inclined to poop later in the day? And is it price training to be a morning buyer?

To understand what causes us to poop, we’d like to think about numerous aspects, including our body clock, our gut muscles, and what we eat for breakfast.

Here’s what the science says.

So morning poop is real?

IN UK study since the early Nineties, researchers have asked almost 2,000 men and ladies in Bristol about their bowel habits.

The most typical moment of urination was during the period early morning. The peak for men was at 7–8 a.m., and for ladies about an hour later. Scientists speculated that the earlier time for men was attributable to getting up earlier for work.

About a decade later, Chinese study I found the same pattern. About 77% of the nearly 2,500 participants said that they had pooped in the morning.

But why in the morning?

There are several reasons. The first concerns our circadian rhythm – our 24-hour internal clock that helps regulate body processes equivalent to digestion.

In healthy people, our internal clock implies that the muscles in the colon are contracting distinct rhythm.

At night there may be minimal activity. The deeper and calmer our sleep, the higher less these muscle spasms that we have now. This is one in every of the reasons we do not poop while we sleep.

The lower intestine is a muscular tube that contracts more strongly at certain times of the day.
Vectomart/Shutterstock

But activity increases during the day. Our colon contractions are most energetic in the morning after waking up and after each meal.

One particular sort of colonic contraction, partially controlled by our internal clock, is often called “mass movements“. These are strong contractions that push the poop down into the rectum, preparing it to be passed out of the body, but do not all the time result in a bowel movement. In healthy people, these contractions occur several times a day. They occur more often in the morning than in the evening and after meals.

Breakfast can also be a reason to poop. When we eat and drink, our stomach expands, which triggers “gastrocolic reflex“. This reflex stimulates the colon to contract strongly and will result in any existing poop in the colon being pushed out of the body. We know that the gastrocolic reflex is strongest in the morning. This explains why breakfast will be such a powerful trigger for bowel movements.

And then our morning coffee. It may be very strong stimulant contractions of the sigmoid colon (the last a part of the colon before the rectum) and the rectum itself. This results in a bowel movement.

How essential are morning poops?

Big international surveys show that the overwhelming majority of individuals poop between thrice a day and thrice every week.

This still leaves many individuals who do not have regular bowel movements, have regular bowel movements but with various frequency, or do not all the time urinate in the morning.

So if you happen to are healthy, it’s rather more essential that your bowel movements are comfortable and regular. Bowel movements must happen once a day in the morning.

Morning poop can also be not good for everybody. Some people with irritable bowel syndrome feel an urgent must defecate in the morning – often several times after waking up, during and after breakfast. This will be quite disturbing. It appears that morning urination is attributable to overstimulation of morning colonic contractions.

Can you train yourself to be regular?

Yes, for instance, to assist treat constipation via the gastrocolic reflex. Children and elderly people affected by constipation can use the toilet immediately after eating breakfast to alleviate symptoms. For adults affected by constipation, drinking coffee usually can assist stimulate the intestines, especially in the morning.

Disrupted circadian rhythms may also result in irregular bowel movements and an increased risk of urination evenings. So not only can higher sleep habits help people sleep higher at night, but they can assist them have more regular bowel movements.

A man preparing Italian-style coffee at home, adding coffee to the pot
Regular morning coffee can assist relieve constipation.
Caterina Trimarchi/Shutterstock

Regular physical activity and avoiding it sits so much are also essential in stimulating bowel movementsespecially in people affected by constipation.

We know that stress can contribute to irregular bowel movements. So minimize stress and give attention to leisure can assist bowel movements turn into more regular.

Fiber also comes from fruit and veggies helps make your bowel movements more regular.

Finally, ensuring proper hydration helps minimize the risk of constipation and makes your bowel movements more regular.

Monitoring bowel habits

Most of us think that pooping in the morning is normal. However, there may be a large variation in the norm, so don’t be concerned in case your poops don’t follow this pattern. It is more essential that your poops are comfortable and regular for you.

If you’re concerned a couple of serious change in your bowel regularity, please contact your GP. The cause could also be so simple as a change in weight-reduction plan or starting a brand new medication.

But sometimes it might mean a very important change in your gut health. Therefore, your GP might have to order further tests, which can include blood tests or imaging tests.

This article was originally published on : theconversation.com
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